This paper investigates an attempt to detect genu valgums in patients. A typical diagnosis of genu valgum is based on the observation of how the alignment of the knees are during standing or if legs have different lengths. This system is an attempt to computationally draw a line between what kind of knee is a “genu valgum” and a “normal” knee. This system would also focus on an approach to increase the accuracy of the model to correctly classify this shape “disorder”. Authors would rely on the creation of our dataset from Physiobank (modified) test it on a live subject to establish the standard of performance.
Introduction: Breast lesions are very common diseases worldwide. Benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for most breast problem in females. Carcinoma breast is one of the most common human neoplasms rapidly replacing cancer of cervix as the most important leading site of cancer in most urban populations of India. A panel of antibodies, improved antigen retrieval techniques have all contributed to the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in solving diagnostic problems in breast pathology.
Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study done in a hospital in Tumkur, Karnataka for 1.5 years. Total of 41 benign and 41 malignant biopsies of breast neoplasm from female patients was studied. All breast masses were analyzed systematically by clinical history, physical examination, histopathological examination along with the immunohistochemical study of CK 5/6. All collected data were entered into a master sheet and fed into computer software for statistical analysis using Pearson\'s Chi-square test.
Results: In our study patients belonged to the age group of 15 –70 years. Benign lesions were common in the age group of 21–30 years, and malignant lesions were common in the age group of 51–60 years. The most frequent benign neoplasm was a fibroadenoma (74%) and in malignancy, infiltrating ductal carcinoma-NOS (85%). Most of the malignant cases were of size T2 (76%) and grade II (66%) and without any lymph node metastatic deposits (83%). All benign breast lesions showed positive expression for CK 5/6; the staining index of benign lesions varied from 5–9. Fibroadenomas showed stain index range of 6–8. Highest stain index of 9 was seen in fibrocystic with ductal epithelial hyperplasia. In malignant lesions, all cases were negative for CK 5/6 expression except 3 IDC-NOS cases which were grade III (poorly-differentiated) and showed weak CK 5/6 expression with stain index of 2.There was a statistically significant association between CK 5/6 stain index with grading and lymph node metastasis.
Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an integral part of the pathology. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain remain the gold standard method for diagnosis, IHC provides useful vital information in grey zone cases. CK 5/6, as a component of panels along with AE1/AE3 and myoepithelial markers, help to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions in cases of interobserver variability. Grade III breast carcinoma cases, if positive for CK 5/6, imply a ‘basal-like’ molecular phenotype and signify a poor prognosis. These tumors require aggressive intervention. CK 5/6 can help provide prognostic information and better treatment modalities.
Kodenge R Rao,
Samir R Nayak,
Kurra V Devi
Background: Acute intestinal obstruction is one of the most common causes of surgical admissions worldwide. Adhesions 1 appear to be the most common cause in the Western world as well as in parts of Asia and the Middle East. But in India, it has been observed that obstructed inguinal hernia seemed to be the most prevalent cause. Radiography accurately diagnoses intestinal obstruction in approximately 60% of cases. The etiological factors and diagnostic approach seems to vary in the different demographic study. In this study, an attempt has been made to elaborate on our experience in acute intestinal obstruction with its cause and management.
Aim: To discuss the surgical management in regard to 40 cases of acute intestinal obstruction.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 40 cases that underwent exploratory laparotomy for an indication of acute intestinal obstruction in the period between June 2016 and May 2018.
Results: Of the 40 cases that were included in the study has been observed that the median age of patients has been 51.4 years and 16 (40%) of cases were due to adhesions, 12 (30%) cases were due to malignant growths which comprised the major etiological causes. The mortality rate was 15%, and the complication rate was 25%. Accurate diagnosis on radiography could only be obtained in 4 (10%) cases.
Conclusion: The analysis of patient data reveals that postoperative adhesions is a major etiological factor for acute intestinal obstruction in India similar to the western world and that CT abdomen must be opted as a means for accurate diagnosis prior to surgical approach.
Postpartum psychosis is a psychotic disorder that usually occurs in women who have recently delivered a baby. The syndrome is often characterized by the mother\'s depression, delusions, and thoughts of harming either herself or her infant. Postpartum psychosis in a male is however rarely observed. Hereby, we present this unusual case of 27-year-old male who developed psychosis just after the birth of his first child.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) occurs when the embryonic forebrain (prosencephalon) fails to divide into the cerebral hemispheres. Thus, resulting in a single-lobed brain structure with severe skull and facial defects. In most instances, the malformations are rather severe, and babies die before birth.
An HPE may be categorized into three variants (1) alobar, (2) semilobar, (3) lobar. Cyclopia a severe facial abnormality that is characterized by a single eye at the root of the nose with an associated supraocular proboscis (tubular nose) replacing the missing one.
Background: Pancytopenia is a striking feature of much serious and life-threatening illness. The etiological diagnosis is essential for the clinical management and prognosis of the patient. Routine hematological investigations, examination of the bone marrow by aspiration and biopsy provides various details that help in understanding the pathogenesis of pancytopenia.
Objective: To diagnose and know the etiology of pancytopenia through hematological evaluation and bone marrow examination.
Setting and design: This is a cross-sectional study done in Department of Pathology, Sri Siddhartha Medical College and Hospital, Tumkur for a period of 18 months from 2016 to 2018.
Material and methods: Patients belonging to all age groups found to have pancytopenia on complete blood count were included in the study. However, those who were on chemotherapy treatment were excluded. A total of 85 cases were included in our study.
Primary hematological procedures and bone marrow aspiration were performed in all the patients, and trephine biopsy was done in 2 cases. Statistical data of age, sex, chief complaints, physical findings, peripheral blood examination, bone marrow aspiration findings and trephine biopsy in 2 were studied.
Observations and results: Out of 85 patients, the most common cause of pancytopenia in our study was combined deficiency anemia (megaloblastic anemia and iron deficiency anemia) seen in 44 cases. Other causes were megaloblastic anemia seen in 27 cases, myelodysplastic syndrome seen in 7 cases, iron deficiency anemia seen in 3 cases, normal bone marrow in 3 cases and 1 case of malaria.
Conclusion: Pancytopenia is a life-threatening illness. The physical findings and complete blood count provide valuable information in the patients with pancytopenia. Bone marrow study (aspiration/ biopsy) provides confirmation of the diagnosis.