To assess the results of management of ectopic pregnancy with respect to maternal morbidity and mortality and to analyze the risk factors.
Materials and methods
Hospital based cross-sectional study of 52 patients who were diagnosed as ectopic pregnancy in the reproductive age group of 15 to 44 years.
A total of 62 patients with ectopic pregnancy were identified and studied. The rate of ectopic pregnancy was 1.26:100 deliveries. The mean age was found to be 26 years and majority of them were multigravida (Tables 1 and 2). The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain (96.15%) (Table 3). Most patients had tubal ectopic pregnancy (94.2%). Ovarian ectopic occurred in two cases and 1 patient had heterotopic pregnancy. Emergency laparotomy was performed in 39 (62.90%) patients, 3 (5.77%) patients received methotrexate injection while 18 (29.0%) patients were managed by operative laparoscopy (Table 5). All cases of laparotomy did not require any further procedure. Out of three cases, 2 (66.66%) cases of medical treatment were successful while only 1 (33.33%) case proceeded to emergency laparotomy. No maternal death occurred. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay was needed in 5 patients. Risk factors were found in 67.3% and most common risk factor was found to be previous pelvic surgeries (56.45%) (Table 6). Heterotopic pregnancy was managed by expectant method. Two patients were of post-intrauterine contraceptive device.
Although there was no mortality in our study, morbidity was significant which required multiple blood transfusion and ICU admission. High degree of suspicion, early diagnosis using hormonal studies, sonography, and management in an institutional set up can reduce the associated morbidity.
How to cite this article
Alpana T, Nagarathnamma R, Prasad N. Management and Outcome of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Center. J Med Sci 2016;2(3):45-47.
Ajit K Reddy,
Anil K Shukla,
Annitha E Jayamohan
Silicone oils are used in vitreoretinal surgery and it helps in maintaining the shape and fullness of the orbital globe. Rarely, they may get leaked from the orbit and may track to the brain in cerebrospinal fluid spaces like cisterns, ventricles. This can be documented by computed tomography with hyperdense oil. We are presenting a very rare case of the orbital silicon oil seepage into the ventricle.
We report the role of multidetector computed tomography to see silicone oil migrating from orbits to the brain. Not many cases are reported in the literature.
How to site this article
Reddy AK, Narayanappa M, Shukla AK, Jayamohan AE. Intraventricular Silicone Oil: An Imitator. J Med Sci 2016;2(3):48-49.
Superior vena cava syndrome results from the blockage of blood flow through the superior vena cava. It can be a medical emergency if it causes laryngeal or cerebral edema. Hence, prompt diagnosis is of utmost importance.
A 65-year-old male patient came with complaints of progressive dyspnea and cough since 3 weeks. A contrast- enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan was done for the patient, which showed thrombus in the superior vena cava with a rich network of collaterals. The three-dimensional reconstruction was also done to demonstrate the collaterals.
The MDCT provides an excellent tool to diagnose and assess the cause of superior vena cava obstruction.
How to cite this article
Backer PH, VVP Seetha, Shukla AK, Nagesh R. Multidetector Computed Tomography Evaluation of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome. J Med Sci 2016;2(3):53-55.