The Journal of Medical Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 1 ( January-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Comparative Study of Impact of Vaccination on Adherence to COVID-appropriate Behavior, Psychiatric Comorbidities and Quality of Life amongst Postvaccinated Individuals in Urban and Rural Bengaluru

S Yeshaswini, Shahafas Ali Kongath, Vidhya Malyam, Vishnu Vardhan Gopalakrishnan

Keywords : Coronavirus protocols,Coronavirus vaccination,Psychiatric comorbidities,Quality of life

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10045-00227

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 29-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


"Introduction: Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), pandemic has increased mental illnesses. Vaccination was the preferred method of protection and there is sparse knowledge regarding the impact of vaccination on mental health status. Awareness, availability, and accessibility to healthcare vary between urban and rural settings.
Aim: This study compared the adherence to COVID-appropriate behavior, psychiatric illnesses, and quality of life (QOL) among post-vaccinated individuals in urban and rural populations.
Materials and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was done on 606 vaccinated individuals of both urban and rural Bengaluru. Data was collected through a self-structured questionnaire which incorporated a sociodemographic profile, depression anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), and QOL and was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.
Results: In both urban and rural population, majority followed COVID-appropriate behaviors. It was found that anxiety was significantly high in the rural, whereas QOL was low in both urban and rural areas. Individuals with high scores on depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) were found to have a negative correlation with QOL.
Conclusion: In addition to vaccination, adhering to COVID-appropriate behavior is necessary to eradicate the disease. Appropriate mental health care should be provided even in the rural setting to address COVID-related anxiety and depression."

PDF Share
  1. Dinakaran D, Manjunatha N, Naveen Kumar C, et al. Neuropsychiatric aspects of COVID-19 pandemic: a selective review. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;53:102188. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102188
  2. Husain W, Ashkanani F. Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study. Environ Health Prev Med 2020;25(1):61. DOI: 10.1186/s12199-020-00901-5
  3. Corona. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - events as they happen [Internet]. 2021 [cited 29 June 2021].
  4. Khanna RC, Cicinelli MV, Gilbert SS, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: lessons learned and future directions. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:703–710. DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_843_20
  5. Soni P. Effects of COVID-19 lockdown phases in India: an atmospheric perspective. Environ Dev Sustain 2021;23(8):12044–12055. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-020-01156-4
  6. Nelson BW, Pettitt A, Flannery JE, et al. Rapid assessment of psychological and epidemiological correlates of COVID-19 concern, financial strain, and health-related behavior change in a large online sample. PLoS One 2020;15(11):e0241990. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241990
  7. Lakhan R, Agrawal A, Sharma M. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during COVID-19 pandemic. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2020;11(4):519–525. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1716442
  8. Kharshiing KD, Kashyap D, Gupta K, et al. Quality of life in the COVID-19 pandemic in India: exploring the role of individual and group variables. Community Ment Health J 2021;57(1):70–78. DOI: 10.1007/s10597-020-00712-6
  9. Ramasamy MN, Minassian AM, Ewer KJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet 2021;396(10267):1979–1993. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32466-1
  10. Mishra SK, Tripathi T. One year update on the COVID-19 pandemic: where are we now? Acta Trop 2021;214:105778. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105778
  11. Parkitny L, McAuley J. The depression anxiety stress scale (DASS). J Physiother 2010;56(3):204. DOI: 10.1016/s1836-9553(10)70030-8
  12. Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-Bref quality of life assessment. The WHOQOL group. Psychological Med 1998;28:551–558. DOI: 10.1017/s0033291798006667
  13. [Internet]. COVID-19 India. 2021 [cited 30 June 2021]. Available from:
  14. Raina MacIntyre C, Costantino V, Chanmugam A. The use of face masks during vaccine roll-out in New YorkCity and impact on epidemic control. Vaccine 2021;39(42):6296–6301. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.08.102
  15. Yuan Y, Deng Z, Chen M, et al. Changes in mental health and preventive behaviors before and after COVID-19 vaccination: a propensity score matching (PSM) study. Vaccines (Basel) 2021;9(9):1044. DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9091044
  16. Njingu AE, Jabbossung FE, Ndip-Agbor TE, et al. Comparing knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding COVID-19 amongst Cameroonians living in urban versus rural areas. Pan Afr Med J 2021;38:234. DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2021.38.234.25964
  17. Chen S, Aruldass AR, Cardinal RN. Mental health outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in the United States: a national cross-sectional study. J Affect Disord 2022;298(Pt A):396–399. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.10.134
  18. Rossinot H, Fantin R, Venne J. Behavioral changes during COVID-19 confinement in France: a web-based study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(22):E8444. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17228444
  19. Kumar A, Rajasekharan Nayar K, Koya SF. COVID-19: challenges and its consequences for rural health care in India. Public Health in Practice 2020;1:100009. DOI: 10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100009
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.