Holoprosencephaly (HPE) occurs when the embryonic forebrain (prosencephalon) fails to divide into the cerebral hemispheres. Thus, resulting in a single-lobed brain structure with severe skull and facial defects. In most instances, the malformations are rather severe, and babies die before birth. An HPE may be categorized into three variants (1) alobar, (2) semilobar, (3) lobar. Cyclopia a severe facial abnormality that is characterized by a single eye at the root of the nose with an associated supraocular proboscis (tubular nose) replacing the missing one.
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